ECHO Molise
  Emigration and Cultural Heritage of the Molise

Roman Who's Who

   
APPIUS      AUGUSTUS  CAESAR  CICERO CURSOR 
Appius Claudius Caecus
(340-273 BC)
 
Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus
(63 BC - 14 AD) 
 Lucius Julius Caesar III
(135-87 BC)
Marcus Tullius Cicero
(106-43 BC) 
 Lucius Papirius Cursor
    

From wealthy patrician family but sought support from lower classes.  Extended vote and allowed sons of freed slaves to serve in Senate.  Built Appian Way and Aqua Appia. 

Also “Octavian.” First emperor of Roman Empire.  Responsible for era of relative peace known as “Pax Romana.” Dramatically enlarged empire into Africa and Hispania.  Our calendar month of August named for him.  Succeeded by stepson Tiberius. 

Roman consul (NOT the Roman Emperor).  Involved during Social War; proposed Lex Julia and  responsible for dividing new citizens into voting districts.  Died in street fight with partisans of Marius during Civil War.

“Tully.”  Roman philosopher, statesman. One of Rome’s greatest orators. Murdered, his head, hands and tongue were cut off.




Appointed dictator to carry on the Second Samnite War.   “Cursor” means “the runner” as he could walk 50 Roman miles in a day in full marching order, and expected the same of his soldiers.



 DIOCLETIAN DRUSUS   FABIUS  GRACCHUS  GRACCHUS
 Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletian Augustus
(224-311 AD)
Marcus Livius Drusus the Younger  Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus Cunctator
(280-203 BC) 
 Gaius Sempronius Gracchus
(154-121 BC)
 Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus
(165-133 BC)

Roman emperor.  Reigned as augustus of East (with Maximian in West).  Economic and military reforms failed but set stage for later reforms.  Only emperor to abdicate.  Retired to and died in Split, Croatia Tribune of the plebians.  Advocated including allowing  equestrian class to senator positions and  citizenship for Italian allies.  Senate declared his bills invalid and assassinated him.   Roman politician and general. Name “Cunctator” (delayer) from his tactics during 2nd Punic War. 
“Verrucosus” (warty) from the wart above his lip.
 
 Brother of Tiberius. His election as tribune and his reforms prompted constitutional crisis.  Murdered by members of Roman senate.



Brother of Gaius.  Plebian tribune, noted for agrarian reform.  Murdered by members of Roman senate.






HANNIBAL  HORACE  LIVY   M. AURELIUS  MANIUS
Hannibal Barca
(247-182 BC) 
 Quintas Horatius
Flaccus
(65-8 BC)
Titus Livius
(59 BC-17 AD) 
Marcus Aurelius
Antonius Augustus
(121-180 AD) 
Manius Curius
Dentatus
(died 270 BC)
 
Carthaginian, considered one of the greatest military commanders and tacticians.  Son of Hamilcar Barca, brother to Mago and Hasdrubal.  Took poison to kill himself.

 
Leading Roman lyric poet.  From Samnium or Apulia, possibly descended from freed slave.

 

Roman historian, famous book “Ad Urbe Condita Libri.”







 
Co-emperor with Versus.  Among most important Stoic philosophers.  Died in Vienna, deified.  Ashes returned to Rome and rest in Hasdrian’s mausoleum until Visigoths sacked city in 410 AD.  Three time consul for Roman Republic, known for ending Samnite War.  Born with teeth (“dentatus”).  Known as incorruptible and fugal.


 



 MARIUS

 MINUCIUS

 MUTILUS

 NERO

 POMPEY

 Gaius Marius
(157-86 BC)

Marcus Minucius Rufus 
(died 216 BC)

 Gaius Papius Mutilus

 Gaius Claudius Nero

Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus 
(106-48 BC)

Roman general and statesman.  Elected consul 7 times.  Noted for reforms of army and structure of legions.  After civil war with Sulla, he died 1 month after return to Rome.  Body exhumed and thrown in the Tiber River 4 years later.

 
Roman consul 221 BC.  Master of the Horse
during dictatorship of Fabius Maxiumus. 
Killed at Battle of Cannae.





 
 Samnite noble during Social War 91-87 BC.  Granted Roman citizenship following his loss to Sulla.  After, he was proscribed and committed suicide.





Roman consul (NOT the emperor).  Led the army that defeated Carthaginians of Hasdrubal at Metaurus (207 BC).




 
 From wealthy Italic (provincial) family.  Established himself in Roman nobility by successful leadership in several campaigns.  Faced down Julius Caesar, then fled to Egypt, where his head was cut off so it could be sent to Caesar.





 PAULLUS POLYBIUS   PYRRHUS  SCIPIO  SULLA
Lucius Aemilius
Paullus
(died 216 BC)
 
 (200-118 BC)  Pyrrhus
of Epirus
(319-272 BC)
 Publius Cornelius
 Scipio Africanus
(235-183 BC)
 Lucius Cornelius
Sulla Felix
(138-78 BC)
Roman consul.  Acquitted of charges of unfairly dividing spoils of the 2nd Illyrian War.  Shared command of army with Varro at Battle of Cannae.  Father-in-law of Scipio Arficanus.  Many achievements in medical field and helped invent the trebuchet.  Greek historian, noted for “The Histories,” covering 220 to  146 BC, including the rise of the Roman Republic and its domination over Greece.  Eyewitness to Roman victory over Hannibal and destruction of Carthage.     
 
 
 
Greek general and statesman, strong opponent of Rome.  Upon entering Argos with his army, an old woman dropped a roof tile on his head, allowing an Argive soldier to behead him. 


 
Scipio the Elder.
General of 2nd Punic War and statesman of Republic.  Earned “africanus” for his defeat of Hannibal at Zama.  Died under suspicious circumstances.  Had demanded to be buried away from Rome “ungrateful fatherland, you will not even have my bones.”
Roman general and statesman. Machiavelli
referred to his
 cunning and courage
as ideal
characteristics
of leader.  Involved in civil war with Marius. 
“Exterminator of Sannio.”  Died of liver failure from chronic alcohol abuse.




 STRABO STRABO   TIBERIUS TELESINUS   VARRO
 Strabo
(63 BC -24 AD)
 Gnaeus Pompeius
Strabo
(died 87 BC)
Tiberius Julius
Caesar Augustus
(42-37 AD) 
Pontius Telesinus   
Gaius Terentius Varro
Greek historian, geographer and philosopher.  Lived in Rome 44 -31 BC.  Wrote 17-volume “Geographica,” descriptive history of his known world. 


Military leader called “Pompey Strabo” to differentiate him from Greek historian.  Cicero called him “worthy of hatred for his cruelty, avarice and perfidy”.  Killed by lightening. His soldiers dragged his body thru streets.
  
One of Rome’s greatest generals and most tyrannical emperors.  Adoptive father of Caligula.  Legend tells that the crowds rejoiced upon hearing of his death.




Leader of Samnite army during Social  and Civil Wars.  Attacked Sulla’s army at the Colline Gates of Rome, fought all night before being routed.  Samnite prisoners were slaughtered in the Villa Publica and bodies dumped into the Tiber River.
 
Roman consul and co-commander with Paullus at Battle of Cannae.  History blamed his rashness for the Roman defeat at Cannae, but modern historians are re-assessing his role.  Served as African ambassador in 200 BC.
 
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